Annus , E. (2012) “The Problem of Soviet Colonialism in the Baltics”. Journal of Baltic Studies 43 , 1 , 21–45.
Auers , D. (2013) “Latvia”. In Handbook of political change in Eastern Europe , 85–124. Sten Berglund , Kevin Deegan-Krause , and Joakim Ekman , eds. Cheltenham , Northampton MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Auers , D. (2015) Comparative politics and government of the Baltic States: Estonia , Latvia and Lithuania in the 21st century. Basingstoke , New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Berglund , S. , K. Deegan-Krause , and J. Ekman (2013) Handbook of political change in Eastern Europe. 3rd ed. Cheltenham , Northampton MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Berglund , S. , J. Ekman , and F. H. Aarebrot (2004) The handbook of political change in Eastern Europe. Cheltenham , Northampton: Edward Elgar.
Bideleux , R. and I. Jeffries (2007) A history of Eastern Europe: crisis and change. 2nd ed. London , New York: Routledge.
Biezen , I. v. , P. Mair , and T. Poguntke (2012) “Going , going ,.. gone? The decline of party membership in contemporary Europe”. European Journal of Political Research 51 , 1 , 24–56.
Birch , S. (2003) Electoral systems and political transformation in post-communist Europe. Basingstoke , New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Bozóki , A. and J. T. Ishiyama (2002) The communist successor parties of central and eastern Europe. Armonk , NY: M.E. Sharpe.
Brubaker , R. (1996) Nationalism reframed: nationhood and the national question in the new Europe. Cambridge , New York: Cambridge University Press.
Budryte , D. (2005) Taming nationalism? Political community building in the post-Soviet Baltic states. Aldershot , Burlington: Ashgate Publishing , Ltd.
Cabada , L. , V. Hloušek , and P. Jurek (2014) Party systems in east central Europe. Lanham , Boulder , etc.: Lexington Books.
Caramani , D. and I. v. Biezen (2007) “Cleavage structuring in western vs central and eastern Europe: state formation , nation-building and economic modernisation”. ECPR Joint Sessions , Helsinki.
Dassonneville , R. and M. Hooghe (2011) “Mapping electoral volatility in Europe”. In 1st European Conference on Comparative Electoral Research , Sofia (Bulgaria) , 1–3 December.
Deegan-Krause , K. (2007) “New dimensions of political cleavage”. In Richard J. Dalton and Hans D. Klingemann , eds. Oxford handbook of political behaviour , 538–556. New York: Oxford University Press.
Duvold , K. (2015) “The lingering impact of the past: political divides in Estonia , Latvia and Lithuania”. ECPR Joint Sessions , Workshop: no 15 “Structures of political competition in post-communist democracies: iIf not cleavages , then what?” , Warsaw , Poland , 29 March – 4 April.
Duvold , K. , and M. Jurkynas (2013) “Lithuania”. In Sten Berglund , Kevin Deegan-Krause and Joakim Ekman , eds. Handbook of political change in eastern Europe , 125–166. Cheltenham , Northampton MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Enyedi , Z. (2006) “Party Politics in Post-Communist Transition”. In William Crotty and Richard S. Katz , eds. Handbook of party politics , 228–238. London , Thousand Oaks , etc.: Sage.
Estonian National Electoral Committee (2015) “Estonian National Electoral Committee”. Available online at <http://www.vvk.ee/general-info/>. Accessed on 07.11.2014.
Evans , G. (2006) “The social bases of political divisions in post-communist eastern Europe”. Annual Review of Sociology 32 , 245–270.
Evans , G. , and S. Whitefield (2000) “Explaining the formation of electoral cleavages in post-communist democracies”. In Hans D. Klingemann , E. Mochmann and K. Newton , eds. Elections in central and eastern Europe: the first wave , 36–70. Berlin: Sigma.
Galbreath , D. J. (2005) “Nation-building and minority politics in post-socialist states: interests , influence , and identities in Estonia and Latvia”. Thesis (Ph D ) , Ibidem , University of Leeds (School of Politics and International Studies).
Gallagher , M. (2012) Electoral indices. Available online at <https://www.tcd.ie/Political_Science/ staff/michael_gallagher/ElSystems/Docts/ElectionIndices.pdf>. Accessed on 16.05.2016.
Janos , A. C. (2000) East central Europe in the modern world: the politics of the borderlands from pre- to postcommunism. Stanford , Calif.: Stanford University Press.
Jungerstam-Mulders , S. , ed. (2006) Post-Communist EU member states: parties and party systems. Aldershot , Burlington , VT: Ashgate.
Jurkynas , M. (2004) “Emerging Cleavages in New Democracies: The Case of Lithuania”. Journal of Baltic Studies 35 , 3 , 278–296.
Kahk , J. , and E. Tarvel (1997) An economic history of the Baltic countries. Stockholm: Stockholms Universitet.
Kasekamp , A. (2010) A history of the Baltic states. (Palgrave Essential Histories.) Houndmills , Basingstoke , New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Kelertas , V. (2006) Baltic postcolonialism. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Kitschelt , H. (1995) “Formation of party cleavages in post-Communist democracies”. Party Politics 1 , 4 , 447–472.
Kitschelt , H. (2001) “Divergent paths of postcommunist democracies”. In Richard Gunther and Larry Jay Diamond , eds. Political parties and democracy , 299–323. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
Kitschelt , H. , Z. Mansfeldová , R. Markowski , and G. Tóka (1999) Post-Communist party systems: competition , representation , and inter-party cooperation. (Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics.) Cambridge , New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kostelecký , T. (2002) Political parties after Communism: developments in east-central Europe. Washington , D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press.
Kreuzer , M. , and V. Pettai (2003) “Patterns of political instability: affiliation patterns of politicians and voters in post-Communist Estonia , Latvia , and Lithuania”. Studies in Comparative International Development 38 , 2 , 76–98.
Krupavičius , A. (2005) “Lithuania’s political parties and party system , 1990–2001”. In Anatoli Kulik and Susanna Pshizova , eds. Political parties in post-Soviet space. Russia , Belarus , Ukraine , Moldova and the Baltics , 183–210. London , Connecticut , Westport: Praeger.
Kuzio , T. (2002) “History , memory and nation building in the post-Soviet colonial space”. Nationalities Papers 30 , 2 , 241–264.
Lagerspetz , M. and H. Vogt (2013) “Estonia”. In Sten Berglund , Kevin Deegan-Krause and Joakim Ekman , eds. Handbook of political change in eastern Europe , 51–84. Cheltenham , Northampton MA Edward Elgar Publishing.
Lane , T. , A. Pabriks , A. Purs , and D. J. Smith (2002) The Baltic states: Estonia , Latvia and Lithuania. London , New York: Routledge.
Lawson , K. , A. Römmele , and G. Karasimeonov (1999) Cleavages , parties , and voters: studies from Bulgaria , the Czech Republic , Hungary , Poland , and Romania. Westport , Conn.: Praeger.
Lewis , P. , G. (2000) Political parties in post-Communist eastern Europe. London , New York: Routledge.
Lewis , P. , G (2006) “Party systems in post-Communist central Europe: patterns of stability and consolidation”. Democratization 13 , 4 , 562–583.
Lipset , S. , M. and S. Rokkan (1967) Party systems and voter alignments: cross-national perspectives. New York: Free Press.
Manifesto Project , the (2015) Available online at <https://manifestoproject.wzb.eu/>. Accessed on 17.05.2015.
Mikkel , E. (2006) “Patterns of party formation in Estonia: consolidation unaccomplished”. In Susanne Jungerstam-Mulders , ed. Post-Communist EU member states: parties and party systems , 23–47. Aldershot , Burlington , VT: Ashgate.
Misiunas , R. J. and R. Taagepera (1993) The Baltic states , years of dependence , 1940–1990. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Moore , D. C. (2001) “Is the post-in Postcolonial the post-in post-Soviet? Toward a global Postcolonial critique”. Globalizing Literary Studies 116 , 1 , 11–128.
Mälksoo , L. (2002) “State identity , deconstruction and ‘functional splitting’: the case of illegal annexations”. In Gerhard Loibl , ed. Austrian review of international and European law , 91–110. Leiden , Boston: Martinus Nijhoff.
Nørgaard , O. (1999) The Baltic states after independence. 2nd ed , (Studies of Communism in Transition.) Cheltenham , UK , Northampton , MA: Edward Elgar Pub.
Norkus , Z. (2012) On Baltic Slovenia and Adriatic Lithuania: a qualitative comparative analysis of patterns in post-Communist transformation. Budapest , New York: Apostrofa Publishers.
Novagrockien , J. (2001) “The development and consolidation of the Lithuanian political party system”. Journal of Baltic Studies 32 , 2 , 141–155.
Pabriks , A. , and A. Stokenberga (2006) “Political parties and the party system in Latvia. In Susanne Jungerstam-Mulders , ed. Post-Communist EU member states: parties and party systems , 51–67. Aldershot , Burlington , VT: Ashgate.
Pettai , E.-C. and V. Pettai. (2014) Transitional and retrospective justice in the Baltic states. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pettai , V. (2012) Elections in Estonia , 1990–1992: transitional and founding: analyses , documents , and data , founding elections in eastern Europe. Berlin Edition Sigma.
Pettai , V. , D. Auers , and A. Ramonaitė (2011) “Political development”. In Marju Lauristin , ed. Estonian human development report: Baltic way(s) of human development: twenty years on , 144–165. Tallinn: Eesti Koostöö Kogu.
Pettai , V. , and K. Hallik (2002) “Understanding processes of ethnic control: segmentation , dependency and co-optation in post-Communist Estonia”. Nations and Nationalism 8 , 4 , 505–529.
Population and Housing Census – Estonia (2011) Available online at <http://pub.stat.ee/px-web.2001/I_Databas/Population_census/PHC2011/01Demographic_and_ethno_cultural_characteristics/04Ethnic_nationality_Languages_Dialects/04Ethnic_nationality_Languages_Dialects.asp>. Accessed on 16.06.2015.
Population Census – Latvia (2011) Available online at <http://www.csb.gov.lv/sites/default/ files/publikacijas/nr_13_2011gada_tautas_skaitisanas_rezultati_isuma_12_00_lv.pdf>. Accessed on 16.06.2015.
Račevskis , K. (2002) “Toward a Postcolonial perspective on the Baltic states”. Journal of Baltic Studies 33 , 1 , 37–56.
Ramonaite , A. (2006) “The development of the lithuanian party system: from stability to perturbation”. In Susanne Jungerstam-Mulders , ed. Post-Communist EU member states: parties and party systems , 69–90. Aldershot , Burlington , VT: Ashgate.
Rohrschneider , R. , and S. Whitefield (2009) “Understanding cleavages in party systems issue position and issue salience in 13 post-Communist democracies”. Comparative Political Studies 42 , 2 , 280–313.
Runcis , A. (2005) “Parties and party politics in Latvia: origin and currend development”. In Anatoli Kulik and Susanna Pshizova , eds. Political parties in post-Soviet space: Russia , Belarus , Ukraine , Moldova and the Baltics , 161–182. London , Connecticut , Westport: Praeger.
Ruutsoo , R. (1995) “The perception of historical identity and the restoration of Estonian national independence”. Nationalities Papers 23 , 1 , 167–179.
Shahrani , N. (1993) “Central Asia and the challenge of the Soviet legacy”. Central Asian Survey 12 , 2 , 123–135.
Saarts , T. (2011) “Comparative party system analysis in Central and Eastern Europe: the case of the Baltic States. Studies of Transition States and Societies , 3 , 3 , 83–104.
Sikk , A. (2008) “From private organizations to democratic infrastructure: political parties and the state in Estonia”. In Petr Kopecký , ed. Political parties and the state in post-Communist Europe , 91–111. London , New York: Routledge. Smith-Sivertsen , H. (2004) “Latvia”. In Sten Berglund , Tomas Hellén and Frank H. Aarebrot , eds. The handbook of political change in eastern Europe , 95–132. Cheltenham , Northampton , MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.